The lessons learned in a wicked environment are not, or at least not completely, useful for accurate application (predictions, choices, inferences, etc). Also see Kind environment.

Inference involves two settings: In the first, information is acquired (learning); in the second, it is applied (predictions or choices). […] Wicked learning environments involve mismatches.

(Hogarth, Lejarraga, and Soyer 2015)


Hogarth, Robin M., Tomás Lejarraga, and Emre Soyer. 2015. “The Two Settings of Kind and Wicked Learning Environments.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 24 (5): 379–85.