Bob Black, (Black n.d.)


We – humans – should abolish forced labor and replace it, and related systems, with un-forced labor: play.


The essay is more focused on goals rather than the means with which we could achieve those goals. The way of organizing global society described here could be a north star for humanity over the next 200-500 years as we grow into post-scarcity.

Black proposes converting work to play. I wonder: will all games have players?

Even if we assume that all work could be gamified, it’s not clear that everyone will want to play such games. I love games, and have spent way too much of my life playing them, but I’ve gone months and years without playing any games at all, and don’t see how being forced to play a game would be any better than being forced to work.

Also, its difficult to imagine how the most undesirable of jobs could be gamified. Who’s going to want to play the garbageman game? Or the fix the sewage system game?

The products and services of our modern world also requires sustained, multi-year efforts by trained specialists. Something like the mass production of medicine isn’t something you can just play with once in a while and still get it made in high enough quantities with serious quality control.

(pmoriarty n.d.)

Perhaps the answer is just more automation.


The alternative to work isn’t just idleness. To be ludic is not to be quaaludic. As much as I treasure the pleasure of torpor, it’s never more rewarding than when it punctuates other pleasures and pastimes. Nor am I promoting the managed time-disciplined safety-valve called “leisure”; far from it. Leisure is nonwork for the sake of work. Leisure is the time spent recovering from work and in the frenzied but hopeless attempt to forget about work. Many people return from vacation so beat that they look forward to returning to work so they can rest up. The main difference between work and leisure is that work at least you get paid for your alienation and enervation.

The Carrot is the Stick

Many workers are fed up with work. There are high and rising rates of absenteeism, turnover, employee theft and sabotage, wildcat strikes, and overall goldbricking on the job. There may be some movement toward a conscious and not just visceral rejection of work. And yet the prevalent feeling, universal among bosses and their agents and also widespread among workers themselves is that work itself is inevitable and necessary.

I disagree. It is now possible to abolish work and replace it, insofar as it serves useful purposes, with a multitude of new kinds of free activities. To abolish work requires going at it from two directions, quantitative and qualitative. On the one hand, on the quantitative side, we have to cut down massively on the amount of work being done. At present most work is useless or worse and we should simply get rid of it. On the other hand — and I think this is the crux of the matter and the revolutionary new departure — we have to take what useful work remains and transform it into a pleasing variety of game-like and craft-like pastimes, indistinguishable from other pleasurable pastimes, except that they happen to yield useful end-products. Surely that shouldn’t make them less enticing to do. Then all the artificial barriers of power and property could come down. Creation could become recreation. And we could all stop being afraid of each other.

Under a system of permanent revelry, we will witness the Golden Age of the dilettante which will put the Renaissance to shame. There won’t be any more jobs, just things to do and people to do them.

Bear in mind that we don’t have to take today’s work just as we find it and match it up with the proper people, some of whom would have to be perverse indeed. If technology has a role in all this it is less to automate work out of existence than to open up new realms for re/creation.

Workers of the world… relax!

Work makes a mockery of freedom. The official line is that we all have rights and live in a democracy. Other unfortunates who aren’t free like we are have to live in police states. These victims obey orders or-else, no matter how arbitrary. The authorities keep them under regular surveillance. State bureaucrats control even the smaller details of everyday life. The officials who push them around are answerable only to higher-ups, public or private. Either way, dissent and disobedience are punished. Informers report regularly to the authorities. All this is supposed to be a very bad thing.

And so it is, although it is nothing but a description of the modern workplace.


Black, Bob. n.d. “The Abolition of Work.” The Anarchist Library. Accessed March 13, 2022.
pmoriarty. n.d. “I’ve Long Been a Fan of This Essay, as Something to Strive for over the next.” Accessed March 14, 2022.