Julian Shapiro, (Shapiro n.d.)


  1. Separate danglers with a comma
  2. If you can, use a period instead of a comma
  3. In a list, use a comma before the final “and”
  4. Use a comma before introducing a question
  5. Don’t use a comma to represent vocal pauses
  6. Don’t use ellipses
  7. Avoid semicolons
  8. Only use colons for standalone sentences
  9. Place ending punctuation inside quotation marks
  10. Punctuate within full-sentence parentheses
  11. Don’t use exclamation marks outside of dialogue


Shapiro, Julian. n.d. “How to Punctuate.” Accessed February 8, 2022. https://www.julian.com/blog/punctuation.