Robin Hogarth, (Hogarth, Lejarraga, and Soyer 2015)





Inference involves two settings: In the first, information is acquired (learning); in the second, it is applied (predictions or choices). Kind learning environments involve close matches between the informational elements in the two settings and are a necessary condition for accurate inferences. Wicked learning environments involve mismatches. This conceptual framework facilitates identifying sources of inferential errors and can be used, among other things, to suggest how to target corrective procedures. For example, structuring learning environments to be kind improves probabilistic judgments. Potentially, it could also enable economic agents to exhibit maximizing behavior.



Hogarth, Robin M., Tomás Lejarraga, and Emre Soyer. 2015. “The Two Settings of Kind and Wicked Learning Environments.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 24 (5): 379–85.