In mathematics, topology is concerned with the properties of a geometric [Geometry] object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself.

## Bibliography

## References

“Topology.” 2023.

*Wikipedia*, May. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Topology&oldid=1154686503.