In mathematics, topology is concerned with the properties of a geometric [Geometry] object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself.
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“Topology.” 2023. Wikipedia, May. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Topology&oldid=1154686503.